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Opposing players compete to maximize scores by racing against the Mach-1 time frame prescribed-rather than merely making captures. Accordingly, a concerted attempt must be made to expedite moves, captures and settlement transactions in order to earn the maximum Mach-1 speed-of-performance bonus at the stipulated level.
The basic Vectorial game may be described as a miniature directional and formation oriented game which is based on structural behavioral and intellectual aspects represented by the Mancala family games.
Such games usually involve the initial setting up of a plurality of seeds in holes on two or four sides of a board and the transference of said pieces with a view toward capturing agreed-upon numerical quantities with the last piece dropped.
Games of the present invention improve upon this basic primitive technique by utilization of significantly new means, methods and apparatus to achieve significantly new ends.
Games usually represent one of over "simulated scenarios" and are embodied in a wide range of commercially feasible ways e. Improved apparatus for making and playing these Vectorial and Mancala-like games include a game case which contains two built-in timing devices and four storages units for up to two hundred pieces which are differentiated as to color, class, role, power and value; play money which is used to settle financially-related transactions; question and answer cards which contain various types of instructions that bring about unexpected advances and reversals; a doubling device which is used to initiate and increase bets; a standardized, official set of rules governing proper methods of play; and a notation system which may be used to record play for analytical purposes.
The state of the prior art relating to Vectorial and Mancala-like games has remained relatively unchanged in modern times.
Several patents have been granted, locally and abroad, but these have not significantly improved the primitive forms underlying techniques, apparatus, embodiments or methods.
For instance, none of the patents found disclosed any modification relating to simulation of real-life subjects and events. A careful study of these and other patents revealed that they all failed to significantly change the conventional structure and methods of playing Mancala games.
Undoubtedly, the two most pertinent U. The first relates to a conventional 4-row Mancala game called Chuba and the second to an improved game board, with built-in scoring beads, for 2-row Mancala games.
The intelligence that forms the basis for the Vectorial games of the invention are unique. Halma, Mill, Wari and Mastermind, in part, evidence some basic aspects of Vectorial techniques which we have significantly improved.
Structurally, this game is the smallest--and one of the most difficult games of skill. A technical analysis of this basic miniature game--called Vector--reveals that certain dynamics occur directly as a result of the limitation of its syntactical essences.
In respect to time the game has no equal as to speed of play in all three phases: In space the action takes place on a Vectorial matrix which is limited to four cells, four pieces and forward, reverse and diagonal moves.
Rules assign roles and values, moves and captures, and accuracy of thought is almost as important as speed of implementation. An important aspect of the game is its diversity of forms.
The basic, cellular matrix of the miniature game 4 cells was expanded both in respect to the number of cells, rows and directional sense of the vectors.
Mancala from the Arabic "naqala", meaning "to transfer" is the generic name for a count and capture type game widely played in Africa and the Middle East.
An in-depth study see H. For instance, in the two-row games called "Wari," the board consists of two horizontal rows of six cells along its edges with two larger depressions for storage to the left and right of the rows.
The initial set up calls for four pieces beans, stones, cowrie shells, etc. Further, if there are additional holes "made" with two and three beans and if these are contiguous to and continuous with the hole captured, then contents of these holes are also taken by way of bonus capture s.
Even if the beans have different colors, there is no differentiation as to value or powers. Thus, the object of the game is to win the majority of beans, each having the same value of one point.
The four-row game is somewhat more sophisticated. In the game called Omweso, the board consists of four rows of eight depressed, egg-shaped holes.
The initial set-up is four seeds per back row hole for a total of In some variations of the game, seeds or beans may be rearranged on making the opening move.
Captures are not removed but "sowed back" with several rounds being possible before the move ends. A move ends when the last piece sowed falls in an empty cell.
In some cases, if only the front hole is loaded, seeds in these are taken. A move continues, relay-fashion as in a race with all the captured beans until further captures are made or the move comes to an end with the player dropping his last bean in an empty hole.
In sum, these specific features represent the prior state of the art where the most widely-accepted methods and rules of playing Mancala two and four-row games are concerned.
These and other disadvantages, summarized hereinafter, are overcome by the wide range of improvements offered by my invention. A careful evaluation of the prior art reveals the following major points:.
Mancala is played in the ground or on a board, usually with six to eight cup-shaped depressions on either side. The initial set-up is usually one, two, three, four, or more beans in each hole of the two-row game or in the back row holes of the four-row game.
There is no official time factor as an integral part of the game. However, an honored tradition does exist wherever Mancala is played: The game carries no penalties or fines in terms of forfeiting pieces; and bonuses, if any, are limited to the contents of en prise cells as described hereintofore.
There are no diagonal moves in the four-row game, although some variances of Omweso permit a reverse move from left corner cells if such a move results in capture.
The game is never designed to depict or simulate an event beyond the intrinsic nature and essence of the game itself. With these limitations inherent in all commercialized forms of the game, Mancala predictably failed to capture the imagination of the American consumer.
This is so in spite of the fact that several attempts have been made by established toys and games companies to market the game locally.
In each case the historical boat-shaped or rectangular board with depressed cup-shaped holes on two or four horizontal rows was used. Playing pieces used have been seeds, stones, beans, or marbles.
Among the firms which have attempted to make and market Mancala games along conventional lines, i. All the limiting features of the prior art are overcome by the present invention, in regard to a new and improved form of the game, as well as methods and apparatus.
The net effect is enhanced educational and entertainment appeal. Vectorial miniatures and their large Mancala-like variations may be graphically designed to simulate a scenario for any subject-matter with dramatic appeal.
This claim is attested to by the drawings and a sampling of examples which exemplify the infinite scope of the process and product line capability.
Prior art achievements may be gleaned from an indepth study of the available literature of which the following bibliography is highly representative:.
Rattay, ed , Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press, , pp. Cooperative Recreation Service, A careful study of the above cited sources attests to the fact that all aspects of the inventions described hereinafter represent significant improvements over the prior art.
Two groups of games are disclosed: In sum, the multi-facted aspects of the invention may be classified as follows:. Miniature "MachThink" Vectorial games in various forms of embodiments e.
Boardgames, video and hand-held computerizations. Entertainments, Advertisements, and "Enter-trainments," as defined.
New and improved methods of play and descriptive annotation System: Under 3 c a number of games are described which simulate real-life subject matters--events, sports, hobbies and lend themselves to diverse forms of commercially feasible embodiments.
They are syntactically constructed to draw upon the logical, judgmental and creative abilities of playing pieces in selecting, moving and capturing a plurality of playing pieces which are differentiated by symbolic characteristics as to class, powers, roles and values.
The objective of the game is to maximize property accumulation points, runs, cash, etc. The primary objective of the invention, however, goes beyond improvements in apparatus and quality of play.
By simulating popular, real-life subjects and events of educational and entertainment value to millions, the games of the invention will serve to assist in the training function in diverse fields requiring technical expertise via mastery of a body of knowledge.
Further, they may be used for advertising and promotional purposes with a view toward furthering trade and commerce, establishing goodwill, generating prospects, etc.
Obviously, the games meet the expected norms as entertaining devices and have been rated very highly by several consumer testing panels.
The games of the invention utilize a wide range of so-called "game matrices" consisting of one to eight rows of two to twelve cells.
These structural and behavioral aspects are particularly essential to the proper development of promotional objectives.
The simulation effect must succeed in "psyching-in" the player to a fair representation of "real" areas of the subject matter being treated.
The establishment of a related glossary of terms and interrelated rules of play are extremely important functions. The various steps of the simulation process are described in depth and several examples are presented to exemplify the scope of the invention.
New and improved methods of play developed relate to both Vectorial and Mancala-like games vis-a-vis: Transfer of all behavioral dimensions to computer-based micro-processing technology was successfully accomplished.
As a direct result of these and other improvements over the prior art, the games of the invention in particular, and Mancala games in general, may now be played at much higher levels of intellectual challenge and with far more suspense.
Professional level play--in the category of Chess, Go, Checkers and Backgammon--is directly facilitated by the standardization of official rules and the improvement of the notation system.
Other merits of the invention will become clear from a study of the description of its apparatus, methods and games, as stated in the specification and shown in the accompanying drawings.
The description herein makes reference to 21 sheets of accompanying drawings wherein like reference numerals refer to similar components throughout the several figures, and wherein:.
It represents a matrix particularized by 3 rows on either side of a centrally-located value-line and a series of 8 cells per row.
The overlay has a second game on the reverse side. Note that optional moves from the "switch" cells are indicated by the 3-way arrows shown.
Switch vectorial options are shown completely in FIG. The row designations herein relate to the number of rows in each receptacle area on either side of the centrally-located "transactions" field.
Note the built-in timers and storage compartments. Referring particularly to the invented game case illustrated in FIG. A cross-section 9 is shown cut through the case in order to illustrate structural fit of the timing device 7.
The field of the case 12 should be regarded as a "stage" on which the drama of the game "scenario" or "simulation" will be staged.
The case consists of its playing field 12 , two built-in timing devices 7 , four storage units 1 with capacity for a plurality of playing pieces which may be chips, cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc.
The four storage units 1 may be made of plastic or compressed cardboard with removable covering 2. Each storage unit 1 is held firmly inside its respective storage compartment by projections 3 along the sides which groove into indentations 4 and thus prevent spillage when opening or closing the game case.
At the same time, the storage unit 1 may be pried loose and removed from the case if so desired. The storage units illustrated in FIG.
The game case used to embody the games of the present invention is similar to the traditional backgammon case except for the abovementioned improvements.
In addition, the receptacle areas consisting of one to four rows of horizontally-arranged cells may be flat, troughed or mounded.
Conventional battery operated timing devices, of suitable dimensions, were secured and glued down, as shown.
Thus, the timing devices become a unique feature of the game case, as well as the built-in storage units. In certain variations the usage of non-built-in timing devices, e.
This would in no way depart from the essence of the Mach or Speed feature of the exact game and variations of the present invention.
Comparison with conventional enumerating system vis-a-vis Mancala games is facilitated by equating Machcala one row to Mancala two-row games and Mancala two-row to Machcala four-row games.
Although in the illustrations the maximum number of cells in each row is limited to twelve, it is to be understood that said maximum number may be extended beyond twelve.
In fact, an MXIV twenty-four cell configuration for 4 players was successfully tested with minor modifications to the initial set up and capturing rules.
Numerous tests have proven, however, that quality of play is highest in the cell range. The designation of "switch" or "optional moves" cells which permit changing from regular forward direction to a "vertical", "reverse" or "diagonal" direction is indicated in the respective cells by the 3-way vectors.
In most "scenario" games the value-lines are separated by this "transaction area" which serves as the main "design field" for simulation purposes.
Although in the illustration the minimum number of posts is limited to four and the maximum is twelve, it is to be understood that the maximum number of cells may be extended.
Although in the illustration the minimum number of posts is limited to four and the maximum to twelve, it is to be understood that the maximum may be extended and the minimum reduced to two.
Again, although in the illustration the minimum number of posts is limited to four and the maximum to twelve, it is to be understood that the maximum number of cells may be extended beyond twelve and the minimum reduced to two.
The game matrices of FIGS. They may be made from various materials, including but not limited to paper, cardboard, glass, plastic, leather, leatherette, wood, etc.
When a matrix is not pasted down, there is usually an additional game field on the reverse face. These may be used to vary the design function for aesthetic purposes.
Games have been made with playing fields in the shape of a circle, diamond, square, triangle, oval, pentagon, hexagon, septagon, octagon, as well as other irregular shapes.
Playing pieces are of different kinds--various-colored chips, mini-cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc. The playing pieces used are always differentiated by way of symbolic indicia as to class, color, power, value, and role, and vary in size as per dimension of the receptacle areas of the playing field.
Regular plastic and casino poker chips were used as playing pieces, with identifying characteristics on each face. Colors used were, in order of value, gold, silver, blue and red.
Miniature cards used are much smaller and thicker than conventional American or westernized playing cards. In the main, miniature 3-dimensional figures are 1" wide and 2"-3" high and are usually magnetic-based.
Indicia on both faces of chips or cards usually vary and provide for the playing of other variations of the game.
Playing pieces are also used to play other games included in specially designed "super" sets which usually contain three or more basic variations.
In that chips, cards, and discs allow for stacking, ready and easy recognition, "sight" counting or "measuring", the speed and mathematical exactitude of playing Machcala is far greater and more exciting than Mancala.
It is used to initiate, then double and redouble bets from twice to two-hundred and fifty-six times the original amount of the wager. Another apparatus which plays a critical role in the game is the regular 3- or 5-minute "egg timer" or hour-glass.
These may be used as "timers" when a case with built-in timing devices is not used to embody the game. Question and answer cards prevent the removal of captured pieces if questions are not correctly answered.
See Methods of Play section. Chance cards contain directives of two kinds: Play money is a critical ingredient for all financially-oriented games and is used to settle captures to pay-off value immediately when made or as post-capture transactions.
Because the color-coded value-pieces indicate value, a scoring pad is not required unless the pay-off factors on the value-line are in play.
In sum, the above-described apparatus was used to meet the structural requirements of the games of the invention and to improve the quality of play.
As a result, the games of the invention are far more dynamic and intellectually challenging than conventional Mancala and compare favorably with Backgammon, Go, Chess and other classical games.
Most of the apparatus in the game serve to enhance the state of art relating to the structural embodiment of Mancala and Mancala-like games and the way said games are played.
How this is brought about will be clearly revealed by an explanation of the syntactical and behavioral aspects of the basic game of the invention and the numerous variants spawned.
The game products of the invention fall under three primary categories: This game--a vectorial "banking" game called "Banko"--is financially oriented in regard to its scenario.
The basic game encompasses the fundamental structural elements and behavioral dimensions present in the Machcala "Xchange" and "Relay" games, as described hereinafter.
Revealed are several unique features which are entirely new to Mancala and Mancala-like games. This matrix was used to develop the miniature combinatorial version of the basic game of the invention.
A full and clear understanding of this, the so-called basic game of the invention, is essential to comprehension of the wealth of Machcala games which it generates.
Anyone with skills in the field of game design will readily see that several features of this parental and cellular game represent significant advancement over the prior art vis-a-vis games dealing with count and capture techniques and pattern formations e.
Tic-tac-toe, Morris, Chinese Checkers, and Mancala. Game scenario or setting--financially-oriented; relates to a number of "Banks" or "Casinos" competing for deposits or patronage and offering different levels of pay-off Value or Point Pieces: These represent property to the accumulated and are differentiated color-codings as follows: In sum each player has 4 Gold and 4 Silver pieces.
These are the "Banko" and "Killer" pieces. They have no value when captured. However, they are empowered to make or negate capture as follows: Only Banko can capture Killer to form a zero-valued "pair.
Initial Set-up - Back game: Total factored value with gold placed in 2: The game ends when one player goes bankrupt and cannot meet the call for payment.
The timing device must be started before commencing the move called deal in the front game and stopped following the end of the deal in the back game.
When captures are made settlement is made "off" the timer. Thus the MACH-1 time frame relates to move-time deal-time only. To initiate the first move in the front game, the player lifts all the pieces called set in either bank and deposits one in each successive bank moving clockwise from one row to the other.
Deals are confined to both rows. If the last piece falls in a loaded bank, that set is lifted and then dealt, as in a relay race, until the last piece falls in an empty bank or capture is made, as defined.
A player can only exercise the option to switch reverse or diagonal after making a deposit in a forward direction. Only 2 Forward moves, 1 Reverse and 1 Diagonal are allowed per deal.
The lift of a new set in a front game relay combination constitutes a new deal. Note too that in "vectorial" games a player may initiate a switch from his own second bank X2, Y2.
See Methods of switching in "regular" Machcala games. This procedure involves the exchange of value pieces for power pieces and is not included in the vectorial series of games.
See methods of play-regular games. Capturing in the Front Game: No capture may result from the first "opening" deal in either game.
Pay-off value would be determined by the color of the pair and pay-off factor. A pair of specials has no value. If the bank behind that captured also contains a pair these are taken by way of bonus capture.
Settlement is not made until the deal in the back game is completed. Capturing in the Back Game: If a deposit s was made in the other bank and said bank contains a pair, as defined, these are taken by way of bonus capture.
Payoff value is factored 1: Captures are evaluated and paid at the end of the deal in the back game. This is usually done "off" the timer.
A pair of Silvers captured in a 1: A pair of Silvers captured in a 2: A pair of Specials has no value. These are usually picked following a move that ends in capture--limited to two.
Directives on these cards being about unexpected financial reversals or advances. Not recommended for advanced level play.
See rules of play section. Bets may be made and doubled by use of the doubling device, as described; e. Both the Front and Back Game end when all value pieces have been captured or players are reduced to one piece each.
Pay off is made as per value and position of the piece at 1: This may be a mutual exchange. Side bets are usually settled at the end of each game.
A score card may be used but is not necessary. It is of interest to note that banks-in-competition bear logos of well-known gaming or financial institutions.
Thus, apart from being a useful and entertaining article of manufacture, the game serves as an advertising medium directed toward the furtherance of trade and commerce.
It is played exactly as described for the combinatorial game. Mach-1 is reduced to seconds or 10 seconds per move.
It will be observed that the cells between the first and last called corner cells offer a 5-way option on the next drop, as indicated by the vector.
The maximum number of switch options is represented by the 8-sided vector in "relay" or combinational relay-xchange games. Machcala vectorials are usually limited to cells per row in regulation "Xchange" games i.
The center row is "commonly" or "jointly" owned. Thus both players may lift and deal any set in any bank on the center row or on their own row.
Capture of a pair of the same color can be made from the back or center row. Vectorial options are limited to the 3- and 5-way switch, as shown.
All cells between the four corner cells offer the player a fiveway vectorial option as shown. Mach-1 is and seconds respectively. Special shapes and sizes: Machcala vectorials were rendered and successfully tested on matrices containing as few as four and as many as cells.
The placement of numerals from 1 to 12 in the center of the board suffices to provide the field for the dice game. The object of this variance is to move pieces in such a way as to form pairs, as defined.
The King is invested with negative powers of Killer K and the queen has the power of vector V. Vectorial games may be embodied on any device normally used for making arithmetic calculations.
Vectorial "Drill Formation" Games: These variance take one of two forms: This is done with great virtuosity and includes dance movements, gymnastics, acrobatics, and the like.
These embodiments provide the capability for playing up to 12 vectorial games in one set. Capability is achieved via use of game overlays.
Another embodiment which achieves the same end is the multi-game TV cartridge for video computer game systems. The simulation capability of the invention is aptly demonstrated by a game derived from the basic "Scenario" or Banko game.
Let us examine the game of FIG. Note that the game case has two built-in timing devices which serve to facilitate the "speed" aspect of the game.
Both players are in charge of 24 "posts"--the three horizontal rows of 8 cells each on either side of the value-line in FIG. The playing pieces are color-coded chips bearing indicia which assign value as blocs of shares.
The objective of the game is twofold: The net effect is the realization of gains or losses on invested capital. The "initial set-up" is made by each player selecting a plurality of value chips colored gold, silver, blue, and red sufficient to place four one of each color in each of the eight un-charted posts of the "sell" game on the first two rows; four value chips are also placed in each of the eight cells of the back row or "buy" game.
Each "point" chip 5a and 5b bears indicia on one face indicating its value. One Mach called Dealer is entered in each loaded post.
Finally, "Cala called "Chairman of the Board" and Killer called "Commissioner of the Xchange" are entered in each game in four different loaded posts in the front game and 2 in the back.
Questions relate to the Street Market and finance. If not a special deck of chance cards with "Head Office" instructions is shuffled and placed on the table beside the recommended doubling device.
Directives on the chance cards contain both "pro" and "con" instructions affecting financial positions. With verification and setting of the MACH-1 time frame and the fixing of the "price for the seat" on the Xchange first bet , the game is formally set-up for the opening "ceremonies" to commence.
Before the opening move may be made certain preliminaries have to be attended to; e. The flip of a chip or coin usually decides first move.
These rearrangements have been tested and are somewhat similar to "opening moves" in chess. Both players then negotiate the "opening contract" which must be for at least 10, shares for each game, i.
No captures can be taken from the floor until this "opening contract" is made. Once it has been made, however, all captures are "open" as described hereinafter.
See Switch Move Options. Next, the move in the back or "buy" game is made by the same player lifting all the chips in any of the eight loaded third-row posts and dealing one in each post in a counter-clockwise direction.
Generally, pieces are dropped as lifted. However, rules for this game require that special pieces be dealt last. The order of the deal is a any kind of value piece in the order as arranged before the deal begins; b Machs aka dealers or brokers ; c Big Mach Chairman of the Board ; and, d Killer Commissioner of the Xchange.
While the Specials are being repositioned the order of the pieces "set" may be changed. When overt counting is forbidden it also enables the player to covertly assess the number of pieces in each set under the guise of claiming to be "only rearranging" or "stacking" while, in fact, counting.
Once the opening contract of 10, shares or more has been made, all subsequent captures may be made without regard to value, provided the number of pieces hit is two, three or four.
Thus, such captures could be as low in value as 5, shares 2 blocs of 2, shares each or as high as 40, shares 4 blocs of 10, shares each.
Prior to settlement value pieces captured in the front "sell" game are stacked before the post s from which they were bought captured.
A bonus capture is earned as follows in the front "sell" game: A player may elect to continue or stop dealing after capture is made.
All "sell" game captures are mandatory. However, transactions are not settled until after the back game move has been completed. After the "sell" game move ends whether in capture or non-capture the player makes the "buy" game move with the timer still running.
These pieces are said to be "made" as against "hit" in the "sell" game. If other posts in which chips were dropped in that deal or "run" also contain two, three, or four pieces, and if these are "chained" or linked" i.
All captures in the back game are classified as "offers" or "buy opportunities" and are optional. If the "offer" is accepted, the player keeps prices captured including specials and pays for value pieces only, as per "Price Per Share" stated on the Value-line for the respective posts: The opponent then "settles" all outstanding "transactions", if any, and the player picks one or two chance cards and follows "orders" which may relate to paying or collecting outstanding loans margins , interest, etc.
When all the value pieces have been captured, the Stock Xchange "closes" for the day and the players then proceed to ascertain their "closing" positions.
It becomes obvious after playing this "Stock Exchange" variant a few times that "playing the posts" maximizing "pay-off" capture values is of vital strategic importance.
In many instances a player may "sacrifice", i. Next in strategic importance to command of the value-line is the corner game-called "playing the corners.
These and other aspects of strategic play are discussed hereinafter in the sections dealing with Methods of Play. The most critical area of proficiency, however, may well be mastery of the "corner game", i.
These then are the important procedural and strategic aspects of playing the so-called "Stock Market" simulation game.
I feel that it is fair to say that the various innovations described in this game and elsewhere in the specification, represent a new and significantly improved process for making and playing Mancala games, in general, and Mancala-like simulation games in particular.
The preferred embodiment of the parent simulation game FIG. Although this format is recommended as that which provides the highest quality of play, it is not to be regarded as the only way to render the game.
These three variations are played as follows:. The eight charted posts of both rows represent the "front" or "sell" game and the eight "logoed" posts of both rows represent the "back" or "buy" game.
Rules moves and captures, etc. In this version, however, all posts are "in competition" and all captures are compulsory.
Chips or cards may be used as pieces as described hereintofore. The charted posts represent the "Sell" game and those logoed represent the "Buy" game, as shown.
In this version of the game, all captures are mandatory. The game is played substantially as prescribed for the "back" or "buy" game of the basic game and the parent simulation game.
Mach-1 is 10 minutes per player. All time frames for Machcala Xchange games and variations were pre-tested and established in order to emphasize this critical aspect of play.
Numerous tests at different levels of proficiency proved that these levels of "speed" can be achieved with practice.
As a result, it is felt that a ten-minute Mach-1 time frame for MXI and MRII versions is within the reach of most players who adhere to the caveat that speed counts.
All the vectorial and Mancala-like games of the invention may be rendered in electronic and computer-based embodiments.
The microprocessor incorporated in any of these games is a miniature electronic system with a computer program which supplies the intelligence for memory, response, and detection.
When used in conjunction with other electronic elements in a circuit, lights and sounds are actuated to promote additional dimensions of play.
The following description exemplifies this capability by way of several examples: The deposit of this last piece will therefore increase total contents of that bank to two, three, or four pieces.
Capture-value is "stored" by the computer or transactions may be "settled" as they occur--with chips or play money.
Macs are omitted and only the two power pieces will be used, with powers vested as stated heretofore. Rex is called "Commissioner of the Xchange" or "Killer" and prevents capture by any piece.
Pro-I excludes all switch moves, multiple capture limitation, and Mach bonus. It is recommended for beginners.
At PRO-II level all aspects of advanced play are involved, including switch moves, multiple capture limitations, Mach bonus, betting, etc.
The game ends in one of two ways: As shown in FIG. Each cell pays a different ratio of dollars to capture-value as shown. The pay-off ratio for cells ranges from 1: There are two classes of playing pieces: The Special "power" pieces restrict or enhance capture capability.
Although these pieces have no value, they do count in the number of pieces in a cell for capture purposes. Big Mac must be computerized as a "positive" force.
Killer, on the other hand, represents a "negative" force. Whenever this piece occupies a cell, no piece therein may effect capture.
A captured "killer" may be "recalled" from "STORE" and brought back into play for defensive purposes. Big Mac, however, may not be recalled.
Both power pieces have no value. All moves begin forward counter-clockwise with the transfer of the total content of the set dealt to each successive bank or cell.
There are four legal moves which may be programmed:. After this has been done the player has the option to "switch" the direction of the next drop or drops, subject to certain limitations.
The second switch move Diagonal or Reverse can be made from any of the 4 corner cells--following a switch move. Illustration of Programs for a move:.
During the course of a deal a player has one "Reverse" and one "Diagonal" switch option. After the first switch all corner cells are "open".
Thus each player initially "controls" 52 pieces. Multiple captures are not limited if player captures in all ten banks in the course of the same deal.
Note that moving time does not include "settlement" time used to make payments with chips or play money. This relates to any speed slower than Mach The bonus earned is such that Mach As illustrated in FIG.
The thirty-six 36 symbols represent the following functions:. Increases the level of difficulty when playing "Auto", i. The formats depicted in FIGS.
This is embodied in the traditional manner with push-button or lever control. These games are ideally suited for this kind of embodiment and would seem to generate very high levels of interest among game lovers at all intellectual levels.
The critical variables and lists used are dimensioned in steps to , and are as follows:. A copy of the program and print-out which provide the basis for microprocessing of the "intelligence" of this and other electromechanical and computer-based games of the invention, if needed, will be forwarded under separate cover.
Said games include, but are not limited to the basic game of the invention BANKO and all "scenario" and simulation games described hereinafter.
See, in particular, FIGS. Thus, anyone with skills in the field of computer games and micro-processing technology will agree that I have resolved the "software" problems which hitherto precluded the advancements in the state of the art.
Accordingly, the games of the invention may be used as models to reduce several strategic games to computerized format if they are based on vectorial and ManCala-like concepts, as defined.
The program supplies the intelligence, memory, response and detection capability which are used with other electronic elements in a circuit to facilitate the creation of lights and sounds which enhance the behavioral dimensions of play.
Both players are represented by X and Y. At start, the game board is as shown in FIGS. Value assignment is optional on 2: Players are allowed two forward moves 1st and 2nd , one Rev, and one Diag.
It prevents capture by any piece in the "set" occupied. Thus, Vector or any value piece can capture Killer by forming a "special" pair.
Vector V is a "wild" positive force which can make a pair with any value piece or Killer. It may also be captured and "paired" by any value piece.
Both K and V have no value when captured. If two separate pairs are formed, both are taken--called multiple capture. Although the computer records all capture values most players prefer to demand settlement in cash play money as captures are made.
This is so even if each player has one piece. Settlement is at pay-off value of 1: The player with most funds at the end of the game is the winner.
Score card is not required unless moves are annotated. Anyone skilled in the art of computer game technology will readily see that the approach perfected may be modified to computerize all vectorial and Mancala-type games.
Four examples will suffice to illustrate this capability. The success achieved by the perfection of the vectorial concept implicit in VECTOR, the basic cellular game, led to the adaptation of the essential techniques to create or improve new computer-based games.
The following examples merely serve to exemplify this capability and in no way defines or limits the scope of the invention:. Thus, when stacked sequentially, a pyramidal structure is formed.
The initial set-up may be a traditional pyramid or any of 5,,, re-arrangements ur-pyramids programmed and stored in the computer.
The object of the game is to break down the assigned pyramidal structure and rebuild a proper pyramid without placing a larger piece atop a smaller.
The number of cells is limited to three. Speed of play is a critical element and the central motive is to establish a race to beat the Mach-I time frame, as determined.
To initiate play, a player removes the topmost piece from the stack and places it in any of the two empty cells. The second piece is then removed and placed in the third cell.
Then the third piece or one of the two pieces already moved is transferred. And so on, bearing in mind the two constraints relating to size of pieces and number of cells to which transfers may be made.
Phase I consists of breaking down the form constructed; Phase II is building or rebuilding a proper pyramid. Score for the player who succeeds in accomplishing this task is the sum of the values of the pieces.
Value is assigned relative to size. This score is doubled if the pyramid is re-formed in the central cell, which pays off 2: Both scores are increased by Mach bonus points: Adaptation of computer technology to the playing of Pi-Mach a vectorial board game in its preferred emobidment is brought about by establishing a series of arrays, each of which represents a cell.
The seven or more pieces of the pyramid are initially set up in the central cell. Each block is represented by a number associated with its value.
If a piece is selected to be moved from Stack C to Stack L "center cell" to "left cell" , a test is made comparing the top elements of each stack.
Should the top element of Stack C be less than the top element in Stack L, the move may be made and the element is popped off C and pushed onto L.
If the converse is true, the move may not be made since a larger piece would come on rest on a smaller piece. It will be observed that at any one time, there will only be three legally permissible moves for each player.
Which is the correct logical move? Various methods may be used to keep track of the time expended by each player. Score for a "full" Pi is the sum of the values times the payoff factor of 2: The winner is the first to accumulate a pre-determined number of points.
It also bridges the gap between jig-saw puzzles and vectorial board games. Aesthetics, however shape, sound, music is more pertinently involved, seeing that a vast array of figures may be sculpted.
The game is played by manipulating and qualitatively positioning pieces called Tans of various sizes and shapes to form recognizable figures which are assigned randomly by the computer: The object of the game is to arrange the tans to form the shape shown on the screen, and to do so as quickly as possible.
To initiate play, a player commands the computer to "show" a figure. This is called the "assignment". The figure first appears at center screen and then, in significantly reduced scale, on a "split" screen, as soon as the player makes the first placement.
Pieces are numbered from 1 to 15 and provide for three levels of difficulty: The assignments, as noted, are permanently shown on split screen together with time lapsation.
As soon as the first placement is programmed, the figure transfers to the split screen section. When the player is "lost" or uncertain about the placement of a piece in a certain section, it is possible to have the computer provide an "assist" See Programming Grid, FIG.
Two "assists" are allowed, but each request reduces the score by a predetermined number of points. Such "help" takes the form of a correct answer to a query, e.
The positioning of a tan by the computer in any empty grid is always in the position that said piece occupies in the correct solution. This is so whether or not the tan is placed in the correct grid.
The positioning of a tan immediately beside another is a random fit selected by the computer. If said fit is incorrect, the player must program a "shift" "re-position" command, e.
Each assignment has a pre-established Mach-I time frame level of difficulty and rating and weighted score value. Game is usually points. This is a highly aesthetic feature--offering hundreds of thematic figures.
As improved, the game matrix consists of three concentric squares or circles and 24 points. Each player has pieces and the object of the game is to "make" three-in-a-row formations as quickly as possible.
These types of commercially feasible embodiments may be achieved by programming the behavioral intelligence, as follows:.
Popping in "pieces" on selected points with a view toward forming 3-in-a-row horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.
Multiple jumps checker-like are permitted. Usually, one additional point. Game may be won by being the first to make a three-in-a-row formation; forming two or three such before opponent; blocking opponent; and, reducing opponent to two pieces only.
Each player brings in one piece on any vacant point. Moving and Jumping--pieces may be moved along lines in any direction and make checker-type jumps.
Pieces are designated "O" and "X" and take on the additional definition of the point occupied, i. Thus, O1-O3 indicates a jump over piece at O2.
If Mach is not started with the first command, the move is not implemented. On the other hand, if Mach is not stopped before the "Run" is implemented, it keeps going.
This variation encompasses all the ramifications, challenges, frustrations, and rewards involved in the quantitative and qualitative transfer of light waves from one position to another with a view toward forming certain vectorial patterns, which opponent cannot duplicate.
Object of the game is to assign opponent a "run" consisting of movements of the light to 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or more contact points and to challenge a correct response within a given time frame.
The game matrix consists of 8 paths, 3 ringed ranges, 24 contact points and a centorium. Playing pieces are, in fact, colored light waves that are programmed to move along any of the 8 paths to selected contact points.
Although the primary focus is visual color and direction , aural elements augment the aesthetic dimensions of the game. To initiate play, one player programs a "run" which is flashed and "held" on the screen for 10 seconds.
An attempt is then made by opponent to repeat the "run" exactly. The player may make one or more attempts to do so, seeing that score is a function of the number of "tries" and amount of time used to duplicate a given number of "runs".
These four variants exemplify the flexibility of vectorial and MachThink Mancala-like concepts in creating new games, converting puzzles to games and in improving ancient games in the public domain.
The process used to develop the simulated scenario capability involves several technical procedures which I will attempt to describe for practioners in the field of game design.
The procedures involved are encompassed in the following flowchart: As illustrated in the flowchart, the sequence of operations and procedures employed in the development of a Mancala-like simulation game by the process of the present invention first involves in-depth study of the parameters, rules, and regulations of the subject matter to be treated.
Next, the playing fields and structural formats discussed hereintofore must all be evaluated as to the specific procedural requirements and artistic objectives.
The artistic design function will involve experimental mock-ups using readily identified symbolic items playing field, court, balls, bats, athletes, charts, etc.
This procedure is the first part of a series of operations which must be undertaken to establish claims to the simulation.
After the setting or stage for the playing field is established, the next step involves the coloring and decoration of the playing pieces poker chips, counters, tokens, coins, cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc.
The classification of pieces is dictated by the requirements of the subject matter. The general classification of pieces are of two kinds, as stated: These special pieces are of three types: The range of values assigned to playing pieces relates to the desired total score at the end of play.
Usually a ratio of 1: The successful design of the playing field as regards functional as well as esthetic aspects and the playing pieces represent the two most important operations of the game simulation process.
Thereafter, the production of a plurality of playing cards bearing instructions which impact favorably and unfavorably on the final outcome or score is undertaken.
These instructions introduce an element of "chance" or "luck" into what are, essentially, games of wit and cunning, i. Carded instructions usually relate to one of these scenarios--time wasting or value reduction or value increase.
For example, in the "Stock Exchange" simulation game, a card might instruct a player who has just completed a capturing deal to "call and chair an important board meeting, limited to 30 seconds.
The games of the invention usually involve side bets--with play money. In order to initiate and increase wagers, a doubling device is necessary.
The "wheel-of-fortune" illustrated is highly recommended in that it is capable of increasing bets from 2 to times the initial amount.
When the doubler is not in play it is placed flat on its face. When it is in play it is placed on its side with the number uppermost representing the level of doubling attained.
Betting is not compulsory in most games and no penalties are imposed if a player declines an offer to "double up. These procedures complete the initial set of operations which must be performed before a simulation or scenario game may be created.
The next steps of the process relate to "test-runs" leading to the establishment of "time-frames" for Mach-1 speed of performance, and compilation of rules of play.
Notation of each move and outcome of test games must be made via usage of a descriptive notation system with a view to evaluating and reevaluating various set-ups, moves, and outcomes.
The objects of the test runs are to establish the following: Where Mach-1 time recording is concerned the game case of the process with its separate built-in timing devices, is most appropriate.
This feature, along with the four-way storage capability, makes it one of the best though not the only method of embodying Mancala and Mancala-like games.
Similar games, as well as other non-Mancala-like games; e. Method of Play--rules of the game to ensure realistic reference points vis-a-vis co-relationships between the game and subject matter treated.
The latter may be classified under four main headings:. Advertisements--In this grouping the primary focus of the game is to promote its corporate or institutional sponsor s.
A game developed for say a bank or life insurance company would fall in this category. Several sets are usually provided.
In these instances the structural elements and behavorial dimensions are adapted to meet the constraints and objects of the medium. In order to master the diverse applications of the process the language of Machcala must be mastered.
See definitions of technical terms as stated hereintofore. Elements of the Matrix: The cells, switch cells, centerfield or transactions area, pay-off or value-line, as illustrated and defined.
Stage or field of play, bar point or ridge, left and right homeboard, storage units, timers, as illustrated and defined.
The structural and behavioral flexibilities of the process led to perfection of its capability to "simulate" innumerable "scenarios. The following examples are provided to show how the principles and procedures of the process were used in respect to the above-cited claim.
They serve to exemplify the limitless scope of the invention without in any way limiting its possibilities. The scenario depicted relates to competition for medals during the course of the Olympics.
There are graphics of selected major events in each cell of the receptacle areas, together with the five rings representing the official Olympic symbol.
The first two horizontal rows on either side of the center court area represent the front or "Winter" Olympics; the third row represents the back or "Summer" Olympics.
The initial set-up calls for four value pieces Gold, Silver, Bronze, and White worth 3, 2, 1, and 0 points respectively , in the designated set-up calls of the front and back games.
Each player then places one athlete Mach in each loaded cell. When the set-up is completed there will be 16 loaded cells with a total of 84 point and special pieces on each side.
In that only the athletes and the Spirit of Olympia can effect capture, the front game is played in the usual Machcala MRII mode with one player lifting all the pieces in any cell of the first two rows and dealing one in successive cells moving clockwise.
All value pieces captured are taken off and stored. Bonus captures are earned as described hereintofore for the Stock Xchange game.
The first capture, however, must be an en prise pair of 2, 3 or 4 pieces. All cells are "in competition". The back game is played in the usual MXI manner with captures of one, two, or three medals by athletes and the Spirit-of-Olympia.
If the cell next to the captured cell is loaded with a total of two, three, or four chips and if there are other cells contiguous to and continuous with that cell also loaded with two, three, or four chips, all these conjoined cells are captured in addition to the cell from which capture was first made.
The game ends when all value pieces have been captured even if specials are still in play. Mach-1 time frame is fifteen minutes, based on the level of proficiency achieved by above-average players.
Numbers on the chips represent runs scorable 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this game. The scenario depicted involves two teams competing at "test" or "speed" cricket to ascertain which will be the higher scorer when the match one or two innings ends.
The "batting" team sets up with five value runs pieces and one Mach Batsman in each of the ten back row cells. The "fielding" team places five "runs" chips and one Mach "Bowler" in each of the ten back row cells.
Hat-Trick are then entered in any two loaded cells. Rules for moving and capturing are similar to above-described Machcala "Relay" two-row front games.
However, the limitation rule is waived and all captures made are scored before their respective wicket numbered Th object of the game for the team at bat is to score as many runs per wicket as possible before the team fielding captures ten wickets, which is to say, ten special batsmen pieces, and "outs" the opponent.
If the team fielding fails to capture ten wickets before all the runs value chips have been "scored" captured , then the game is set up again and continued until the fielding team has captured ten wickets.
The fielding team then "goes to bat" and the winning side is that which scores most runs. Redeployment and re-entry rules apply. Runs value chips captured are disregarded by the "fielding side".
Mach-1 is ten minutes when played at above-average speed. The scenario involves two players competing in a one set club match six suits.
Colored poker chips are used as playing pieces not shown and bear indicia representing a tennis ball with the respective point won in the center of the chip.
Thus, the red chip represents "15", the value of the first point scored in tennis; the blue chip represents "30", the second point scored; the silver chip represents "40", the third point scored; and the gold chip represents "game", the fourth and last point scored.
The initial set-up calls for four point chips to be placed in each cell together with one Mach "player". Big Mach is called "Ace," Rex is the Umpire.
The arrest racket was part of the grand scheme used in forcing reluctant girls into the houses of prostitution. Despite the lure of fun, fame and fortune which attracted the girls to Phenix City, very few ever grew wealthy working as B-girls or prostitutes.
They were commodities marketed for the benefit of the big shots. The two officers took the girls to jail. Buddy and the other cop tried to get fresh and told us that if we would go back into a cell with rhcm for an hour, they would let us out.
Upon our refusal they left and about fifteen minutes later, rhcy sent Ernest and Glenn Youngblood to see us. Ernest and Glenn told us th: They wanted us ro work either at the Club or Uchee Fish Camp.
She said she finally WHS freed when a police sergeant turned her loose and put her in a cab for home. If this was true, then she was lucky, Such kind police sergeants were rare.
She had been told it would cost her 15U5Q to be released, unless she worked it out in trade wirh Jowers or the Youngbloods. The Youngblood brothers operated the bail bond business as well as having interest in several B-girl establishments and in the prostitution game.
In the nightly routine, ilie gjrls became accustomed to the routine of the nien. The B-boys wore fakies, lipstick, rouge, long hair, and exotic perfume.
But this was not com- mon. Mostly, women were the bait. The crime kings of Phenix City recognized how essential women were in attracting business from Fort Benning.
Even those not engaged in the prostitution racket used feminine charms as the come-on for gambling or other activities. Just the thought of "Ma" brings back memories to dogfaces around the world.
Of all the night clubs, honky- tonks, cafes, casinos, snuggeries, haunts, retreats, roosts, shacks, shanties, hutches, cowsheds, huts, lodges, courts, alehouses, gin miUs, bars, saloons, speakeasies, hovels, kennels, booths and stalls in Phenix Cicy, none could compare with "Ma" for the soldier-student clientele.
Her girls catered to them, too. One delectable blond bombshell, a stripper, had her own form of entertainment which worked on either the student body or the GI body.
This little girl would cozy up to a man, sit in his lap and tenderly caress his face and neck, cooing softly all the while.
Laughingly, the wench would lead htm on, 47 48 Phenix City helping his iniaginarion rise like mercury in a thentiometer over an open flame.
Like the thermometer, Buster grew hotter and hotter. And like the mercury, which would explode our of the glass tube if it became too excited, the man would reach the bubbling over point.
Then suddenly the girl would juiTip up and make a mad dash to her dressing room. A couple of enlisted men— in excellent physical shape —almost made it, only to have the dressing room door slammed iti their face.
Undaunted they banged on the door with closed fists and wrenched at the knob. But like the lady hen who chose death to dishonor, the stripper was answering no knocks, believing it was something other than opportunity at her door.
The stripper was safe. These bouncers knew their job. Only when a fight became too rowdy would they oust tlie participants.
More than once they let the sluggers battle it out inside the club. The stool added to her iieight. It was a two-way proposition. Soldiers sometimes would be lined up outside wniting their turn to make a deal with a gid on the inside.
The major- type proposition seemed to run something like this: The length of rime began at fifteen minutes, with an increasing pay scale for additional time.
In this regard, "Ma" was little dif- ferent from the operators of any other houses of physical enjoyment. Where she differed primarily was in the field of entertain- ment.
No one disputed "Ma" when she said she gave her customers the best floor shows in Phcnix City. It was intoxicating stuff. It made even women clients drunk occasionally and they would jump on-stagc and begin their own amateurish form of disrobing.
This, in its way, wa. Once in a while "Ala" would pay the neophyte ten dollars. Why, sir, her place was so clean that church groups visited her weekly, soliciting donations.
All the customers would pitch in happily and so joyous was "Ma" over the visit that she would toss in a dollar herself. If any of the cHents could remember such a visit, they probably thought it was all part of the entertainment.
The stage where the strippers put on their acts: Up-front rabies were right alongside. An ex- so Phenix City cited customer sometimes had to be restrained from vaulting to the platform and helping the stripper along the way.
The other portions of the shows were the ordinary honky- tonk circuit riders: They would tap dance or put their all into a song of years ago.
But it was center stage for the old war horses. At least for a fleeting spell they could live again in what had been but was no more. To this extent, "Ma" was a kindly soul.
All she wanted was for her customers to have a good time. That, and the major portion from their wallets.
To help accomplish tfie latter, there was a game room at the jomt. The croupiers would become tired of it all by then and turn on the heat.
It was in an old and dirty house, nestled back among some residences on a dirt road, its squalor hidden by flickering lights and the darkness of the night.
A neon arrow, which blinked off and on, indicated the trail to passersby on the paved road a quarter of a mile distant. Peering over the tops of her spectacles in a quizzical manner, wearing a plain white uniform, "Ma" looked just like a practical nurse and if there was one thing "Ma" was, it was pracdcal.
She had the task of feeding, housing, clothingj and training the young ones until she remarried. With her brand-spanking- new husband, "Ma" went to New Orleans and there she took her apprenticeship in night clubbery.
She liked what she saw and learned, and upon returning to Phenix City, de- cided that was the life for her. Up went the club and in went "Ma" as the proprietres, on July 14, She liked what she had so much that she never visited any other booze spots in Phenix except the Lasso Club, where her sister competed with her.
The sister, Ada Eberhart, was never the showman "Ma" was. It was haunted, by a special type of human flotsam who made their homes in the gutters.
Unhke "Ma" who was always prim and soft-spoken, Ada was a dour-faced woman who got her kicks from vials and bottles. Even after the padlock was on the door, the veranda served as a favorite gathering place for the hop crowd.
As the clean-up hit Phenis City, the depression hit "Ma. It was a sad time. Her faith in the future of her beloved Phenix never wavered, even in the dark hours when she peered through the barred door of the jail.
They were very strict. Sitting next to her little granddaughter, "Ma" waved as the vehicle moved out into the street and carried her to her farm.
Weeks later she breathed a soulful sigh of relief when the charge against her wa. Justice, "Ma" figured, was triumphant. Her years of hard work, she said, had done nothing more than provide her with a living.
She claimed to be "flat broke," liaving only forty-seven cents. One of her daughters died in a drunken stupor in bed. The death of another child is lost in time.
Of her living children, "Ala" indicates a preference for her son, a chip off the o! He has a job exactly like hers, in Reno. He was undoubtedly surprised.
The date was September, , and Representative Cole must have sup- posed that the three-year statue of hmitations had run out on his former occupation as silent partner in a "bug" house.
Lee and Hughes, investigating for the Alabama National Guard, thought differently, but they did not inform Mr, Cole of their opinions. Cole, quite certain he was in the clear, spoke freely of his operations.
The Representative was a quiet man who also ran a restaurant in PhenLx Citv. He lived near the Russell-Lee County line, in the country where it was nice and quiet.
His home was modern, ranc! Despite his facade of gentility. Cole did not fool all of the people all of the time. In a public hearing, a woman had identified him as a "bug" operator, A "bug" operator is one who runs or owns a lottery house.
He can bet one penny, a thousand dollars, or as much more as the individual house will allow. The player may win fabulous amounts-S25 on a five cent bet, for instance.
It is the odds which make the game so impelling. All the player need do is give his money to a "writer" who calls on him at home or at work, and then the player writes down three numbers from zero to nine.
A new game is played daily, five days a week. The player knows by nightfall whether his three numbers, in the order he selected them, are the winning combination.
Practically every bug player in the area chose the numbers " Nevertheless, soon they were back at the old stands.
Winning numbers generally are selected in one of three ways. The most common method in Phenix for yean was to take the stock and bond quotations from the New York Stock Exchange each afternoon.
Any series of three num- bers could be designated as winners. Since the quotations run in seven figures, it was customary that the second, third, and founh digits from the left would be the correct choice, or, the second and third numbers in one quotation, and the third in the second quotation.
Two obvious advantages came to the player under this selection system. He could read the results, for himself, in the final editions of the afternoon papers, and — even more important — there was no way for the house to fix the game.
There was a way for players to rig a selection, though. In the early days the operators had to learn by experience to stop selling tickets a half-hour before the stock market closed.
They became educated the hard way. An out-of- town player with telephone connections to the New York Stock Exchange would telephone the Phenix City houses within minutes after the market closed.
Unknown to the bugmen, he had the winning numbers before he placed his bet. He was forced to pay two sets of winners for the day. Winners can be chosen by the spin of a wheel or the toss of a special die, numbered from zero to nine.
Three spins of the wheel or three tosses of the die produce the three lucky numbers. Operators liked these arrangements because either is easy to fix.
Still another system is the dropping of numbered balls into a cloth sack. The operator reaches in the sack and pulls out three balls. But the operator wUi have held out the numbers which have been heavily played, saving himself a big pay- off.
He can also conceal numbered balls in a hidden com- panment within the bag. The bug is a vicious racket. They play It daily. Even people on relief have invested in the bug from their tiny income.
He gets so excited he invites all his friends and neighbors in to celebrate and the slush fund is gone in a wild melee of festivities. In addition, the winner in Alabama has paid his writer five per cent of his winnings while a Georgia winner paid his agent ten per cent.
Principal victims of the hug in the South are the Negroes. S6 Pbenix City They, also, were the primary targets of another lottery racket.
Operators boosted their income by selling dream books for fifty cents to one dollar. Bug players— like all gamblers— are notoriously superstitious, which explains why so many chose the " Circus.
The number they select that day is the one abreast of the dream classification in the book. When Cole was detained at the city jail by Lee and Hughes, they talked for some hours.
Since even the writers needed federal gambling stamps, Hughes checked federal records to obtain names and addresses of purchasers.
The writer could be used as a witness against the big man himself. A problem, which could have become a major obstacle, presented itself. They feared their information would incriminate them.
Guardsmen searched lawbooks until they found a section which pennitted a writer to appear before the Grand jury and receive personal im- munity from prosecution.
With this law available, Hughes already had the goods on Cole before he started talking with him. September, said Cole, was the month in which the federal stamp liad become effective and that is when he quit the profession.
Cole was in error, but eventually the Guard dropped the lottery count. Cole paid a fine on a charge of leasing premises for gambling purposes.
The federal stamp did not go into operation until November 1, Cole said he had been a silent panner in "The Old Reliable Lottery. He relied upon his partners, W, C.
Roney and Lawrence Roney, father and son, to notify him daily of his profit and to deposit his share to his account in the bank. The Old Reliable was one of seven lottery houses, of the bigger variety, going full blast in Phenix City.
Shepherd and Mat- thews moved out of the Ritz and A. Buck Billingsley moved in with his home-made organization. Yarbrough, on the other hand, was the old pro himself.
It was Yarbrough, too, who first taught Matthews the tricks with dice and cards that were to make him rich before he was twenty-five.
Now sick and o[d, Yarbrough is in a semi-retired status. Cancer has eaten away much of his nose and face, and he wears a mass of bandages as he sits at his cash register in the cafe.
His operation with McCoUister in the lonery project was motivated, in all probability, by nostalgia. Cole spent the night of his arrest in the city jail.
Through his generosity, he hoped to get shed of the drunks who might keep him awake. Unfortunately for Cole, about two a.
As soon as the doors clanged behind him, he sat down on a coc and starred a game of poker. He once donated 15, to his church.
On another occasion, he gave S to the principal of a school with which to buy lunches for underprivileged children.
Of all the ilhcit operations in Phenix City, lotter -- was far and away the most profitable, the biggest, and the easiest. That was not representative.
Usually the loot did not nm so high. A peculiarity about the lottery operators was that they kept books. They held onto ticket stubs and itemized in derail the amounts they paid to writers on commission.
As did most of the underworld in Phenix City, the operators suffered from that not-so-strange disease among crooks: The malady could be labeled Al Caponitisi non-contagious, non-infectious, but oh-so-permanent, when it takes hold.
Elaborate records were discovered intact. There were large stacks of ledgers, running from current statistics back for several years.
Entries chronicled even minute details of the million dollar business blue-printed by a chief bully-boy, C. Head Revel, and his sometime partner, George Davis, Sr, The amount each writer earned in the past year was entered under his name, and federal withholding taxes were paid on income shown.
One hundred writers worked for the house. A balance sheet for one year shelved a gross income from lottery just shy of a million dollars.
Sharing in the consignment was George Davis, Jr. On the morning of the raid at Tlie Grocery, the elder Davjs, bloated and doped, rocked back and forth on a high stool.
He spoke not a word and did not appear to be in- terested in what was going on. In addition to lottery and gambling equipment uncovered, there were ten adding machines and several money counters in the so-called grocery.
A refrigerator in one of the gambling rooms contained hypodermic needles and smatf, empty glass bottles. Nearly four hundred doUars in bent coins had been thrown into boxes, apparently taken from slot machines and tossed aside to avoid re-use.
Loose twenty dollar bills were stuffed into envelopes. A file, marked "Revel Amusement Company," contained data on slot machines and juke boxes owned by the com- pany, which was separate from The Metropolitan.
The docu- 60 PiiENix City ments indicared the type of suacliine, its locstion, and monthly receipts gained from each. Several weapons, including a sawed-off shotgun, were seized.
So tlie crooks kept books in order to report and pay an income tax. As a result, the treasury men have been working Phenk City for some years.
Nevertheless, the government is practically certain to slap income tax evasion warrants against more nienibers of the fraternity. Tax liens, totaling thousands of dollars, already have been assessed against upper bracket overlords.
Their troubles were only beginning. They said they had worked out a deal with the govern- ment. According to Godwin, St.
But both Senior and Junior were charged in the clean-up with fourty-four counts of operating a lottery. Under Alabama law, conviction on one count carries a fine, but the judge can add up to twelve months at hard labor if he desires.
Second and subsequent convictions carry mandatory jail sentences of from six to twelve months. They saw clean-up juries passing out heavy sentences and saw that the rime had come for them to act.
They tried to make another deal, this time With the state. Davis, Sr, offered to serve time, to plead guilty, if the prosecution would leave his son at home to run the lawful businesses.
The state would not accept. By now, Davis, Sr. This happened a few minutes past midnight, the morning of October Patterson was in his office talking with Private Investigator Fred Bodeker of Birmingham, and one of the authors, when his telephone rang.
His wife was on the phone, giving him a number to call back. Patterson dialed the number and a man answered im- mediately.
For a few minutes Patterson listened, then said, "Wait a minute. Should I see him? It took Davis not more than ftve minutes to arrive. Patterson told the National Guardsman at his door to search the man before he was admitted.
The pudgy, snaggled-tooth, cigar-smoking Davis kept Pat- terson tied up for one hour and fifteen minutes. Amazed by the visit from Davis, Patterson promised him nothing.
He eventually was given two years, to be served after Godwin Davis, Jr. He had his own theory on the tie-up between gamblers and politicians.
Most cops, he said, turn crooked because of greed or selfishness. On election day, he continued, a man was arrested for voting in more than one box.
Fonhwithj he went to see the mayor and inquired on what charges the man had been arrested. The Metropolitan Lottery furnished the Davises and the Revels a luxurious living for years.
The relationships between the families were complex. The partnership employed seventy writers and enjoyed a yearly gross income of nearly 1 1,, The case is important for another reason for it put on the public record the close ties between a city commissioner ;md the underworld.
Gloria Floyd Davis was the daughter of Dr. Seth Floyd, a city commissioner whose father also had been on the com- mission. Here was a direct family connection between a public official and a public underworld official.
Revel admitted, while testifying in the case, that he was a close friend of Dr. Gloria and Bubba married on May 5, After three ;ind a half year?
She had been married twice previously and had one child by her first husband, and one child by Bubba. The testimony is that of Gloria, being questioned by her attorney, John Patterson: Yes, he had me keep the books and tend to every- thing to see that it was working all right.
Gambling was the mn of the mill affair in the places about which she testified. He said the George T. This of course, was before Revel usurped the Met.
SO in , Revel said, reading from official records of the company. He said Bubba received Si 7,2 Davis for unpaid taxes. A Phcni-x City lawyer, James 1 1.
Caldwell, who since the clean-up has become solicitor, testified as an expert wit- ness in accounting.
Caldwell said this could be done. Revel told of the ill feel- ings under cross-examination by Attorney Roy Stnich, the city attorney who was representing Bubba.
Revel decided he wanted to get out and told Sr. Johnnie Benefield was at the wheel. The fourth man was thought to be Revel. They tied up the nightwatchman and a guest, loaded the three safes onto the truck and drove away into the night.
That was how Revel got his share. Revel was plotting how he could, alone, control the rackets. He went to work on Senior, getting the old man on dope until Davis was in no condition to match wits with Revel, then he convinced Senior that Junior was steahng from the company.
Out went Junior and Revel took over The Met almost completely. Revel built The Metropolitan into a huge organization, which he ran alone the last few years before Albert Patterson was killed.
He, along with the Godwin Davis outfit and the Hoyt Shepherd-Jimmy Matthews combine, was one of the few bug operators to gross over a million dollars a year on the numbers racket.
Out of this income, the operators paid not only the winners but usually paid the fines and bonds and hired lawyers for their writers who were picked up by the police.
A writer for A. Bad feelings, caused by the lottery, developed among the operators. Besides the Davis-Revel clambake, Shepherd and Matthews had their eye on another competitor, Pete Hargetc, whose operations at one time were the largest in the area.
Working for Pete was his brother, Guy. Their lottery appeared to be hurting the Shepherd-Matthews enterprise and about the time this came to light, the Hargett home, in an alley, was raided by officers.
Described in another chapter: There were any number of small lotteries, fly-by-night outfits always glad to make a nickel legally or illegally.
He was the first operator to be tried in the cleanup and was found guilty in hts first two cases. Another lottery, known as The Old Original, was run by E.
Red Cook, now serving a life term for murder. Cook was also a beer distributor and his red hair matched his flaming tem- per.
On a Sunday night in , Cook shot and killed John Mancil, a taxicab driver, and wounded two other men, all 68 Phenix City of whom were ia the 60 Club, which Cook ran.
But previously the murder had been used as a weapon over his head by Chief Deputy Albert Fuller, who thereafter employed Cook as his personal errand bov to carry messages and threats for the mob, and for himself.
Going full blast on a small scale was the Club. Parker retained his position until March 15, He would turn his receipts over to "pick-up men" from The Manhattan Cafe.
Making the contact, as a rule, were either Jared Kenyon or Doris Longway. Parker did not sav whether protection dough was paid for the to fLinction hut he indicated it operated with the knowledge of the city.
In addition, he received a fifteen percent commission on lottery and twenty- five percent on all gambling machines in the club.
Tiie sale was made retroactive to January I, Or the players, if they wished, could visit the lottery house and place their bets at the scene.
The option was theirs. I So many persons assembled the day before the tragedy that a portion of the Ritz Cafe, which housed The Old Reliable, caved in, injuring ten people.
The next day, while liug players were awaiting the posting of the figures, the [entire building collapsed. This time twenty-four persons were killed and eighty-three were hurt.
While rescue wotkers dug out the injured, bug writers went about their business of selling tickets. The catastrophe was the worst in the history of Phenix City.
The City Commission promised to investigate bur dropped the matter because witnesses were reluctant to appear ,u the hearing.
The bug was a hardy insect that thrived in the murky atmosphere of Phenix. When it suffered a setback for any reason, it always came back stronger than ever.
The Night Roll was the steady bread-winner. From it, the gamblers always were assured of a handsome net return. But it was big-time sttiff, accounting for more than ten million dollars yearly and providing a good living for hun- dreds of persons in Phenix City and Columbus.
Nobody ever gambled there. The sucker who entered a gambling house had al- most no chance at all of coming out with his roll intact, much less of carrying away any house money There seemed to be only one exception to that rule in Phenix.
Old time gambling figures say that a straight dice game could be had at the Bama Club when it was operated by J. It was in the Bania Club that the biggest games were held.
Witnesses report seeing over one hundred thousand dollars cross the dice tables in a single evening. One of the co-authors of this book has seen thousands of dollars on the dice tables there at one time.
They knew, at least, that in order to attract the big money from the nonh and east, they would have to give the customers a fair shake for their money.
Riding with only the regular house odds. The "pallet" or bank which they put up as a target some- times amounted to fifty thousand dollars, with an almost 70 Gampumg Was No Gamble 71 iinhmitcd reserv-e fund behind it.
The house sometimes won huge sums, as on VJ night in when a gambler from nearby Columbus, Georgia, dropped his roll of sixty-four thousand dollars within a few hours.
On the other hand, the house was hit for large sums on occasion, dropping about thirty-five thousand one slow after- noon when there were only three persons at the dice table.
After the place was closed by National Guardsmen following the murder of Patterson, General Hanna checked air traffic from the major cities to Columbus and found that it was off by about fifty per cent.
Many of the big gambling figures flying down for the lush pickings in Miami during the winter season, would stop off in Phenix for a warm-up at the Bama.
Many of them got no further, having been picked clean on the green dice fields of the club on Dillingham, The Bama offered gambling in almost any form the cus- tomer might choose- It had slot machines, roulette, black- jack and poker, as well as a modem horse-room where you could bet on the nags or buy a parlay on football or baseball.
Drinks and food were on the house to good customers, and for their entertainment while they g-ambled, a big-time or- chestra and floor show were offered.
About two years before Patterson was killed, Shepherd iind Matthews announced with much fanfare that they were quitting rhe rackets.
They surrendered more than five hun- dred thousand dollars wonh of slot machines, and turned the management of the Bama Club over to new hands.
Abney, Clyde Yarbrough and J. The new management did not hold strictly to the idea of giving the customer an even break, and there was a substantial decline in the business coming in from rhe north and east.
But they still offered gambling of every type, including lottery, and sold fireworks as a side tine. All types of fireworks are illegal in Alabama.
Sloe machines were set to pay off only about five cents on the dollar; poker and black-jack cards were marked, deals were crooked, cards were stacked, dice either were loaded or shaved, and lottery drawings were often rigged.
From J until , there were more than a thousand slot machines in operation in Phenix City and Russell County at all times.
The number was greatly reduced after Shepherd and Mat- thews left the field in , to become political fixers and landlords of gambling. Just the week before Patterson was murdered, he iiad joined with Hugh Benrley and others in requesting Governor Gordon Persons to order an all-out gambling raid in Russell County.
The raid had first been planned for the night of June I8-the exact time that Patterson met his executioner in an alley outside the Coulter Building.
The gambling clan seem gifted with a peculiarly valuable faculty. Things snid behind closed doors in Montgomery, the capital, could be heard clearly in Phenix.
Consequently, on the night that Patterson had his teeth knocked out by bullets. OAMBLmc Was No Gamblk I 7a gamblers were busy iiauling slot machines from dives along Fourteenth Street and Dillingham, and storing them in ware- houses, homes, cellars and under improvised rents in the thick woods that surround the city.
It was the type of "cleanup" that citizens knew so well. Several of them slyly pointed out that most of the machines seized were old and inoperative.
Some of them were junked ma- chines that were being dismantled for parrs. Citizens knew from experience that it was neither de- sirable nor effective to report matters concerning gambling to local authorities.
But many people did seek out newspaper men and "tip" them on locations of operating slot machines, dice tables and other gambling devices.
A few more raids were made as a result of these tips, with reporters and pho- tographers standing by to see the job done. This citadel fell before the Guardsmen while Cook fussed, fumed and found fault—all to no avail.
The gambling raids staged by the Guard were well planned and executed. It was on this infonnation that nearly five hundred gam- 74 Phenpw City Gambling Was No Gamble 75 bling indictinenrs have been brought by the Grand Jury, with almtKt all of the defendants entering pleas of guilty as their cases came up for trial.
Duiing this entire time. Special Solicitor George C. Johnson personally supervised the gathering of evidence. In this he displayed the same methodical procedure that was to prove so successful before the Grand Jury and in subsequent prosecutions of the Phenix City mobsters.
Evidence gathered in the raids was sufficient to bring charges against almost every gambling figure in Phenb: City, big and little.
Where warning devices were found in gambling houses, special care was taken in preserving the evidence for felony indictments, Alabama law makes it a felony to install and operate a warning device in a gambling house.
AH other types of gambling charges are misdemeanors. Bur Soliciror Johnson was not pleased or happy about the results of the raids. The fiery prosecutor from Nonh Alabama was disappointed on examining the evidence to find that the two biggest fish, Shepherd and Matthews, were not in the net.
He confided to friends that he would consider the entire operation a failure unless Shepherd and Matthews could be brought to law.
Weeks passed and the list of indictments grew with each new session of the Grand jury. The temperature in August hit one hundred degrees and inched above.
Johnson and Fowler loosened their collars, rolled their sleeves higher and conrinued to dig in. Then one night in mid- August Johnson obtained records showing ownership of some of the gambling establishments and Johnson confided that he thought he could at last hook Shepherd and Matthews.
To do this he used an old Alabama "Gypsy Law" passed about and inactive on the statute books since before the mm of the century.
The law makes it a misdemeanor for any person to rent or lease any property with the knowledge that it will be used for gambhng.
Tlte law was designed as a method of prevent- ing persons from allowing roving Gipsy bands or river boat gamblers to ply their trade in the rural communities of Ala- I bftma in the early frontier days.
Til is was war, and it was necessary to use any ammunition available. Armed with the old statute, plus proof that Shep- herd and Matthews had rented places for gambUng, Johnson.
I went back before the Grand Jury. This time he came om with four indictments against each of the kingpins. Both Shepherd and Matthews served ninety day hard labor senrences.
His wares were shipped to the Mississippi gold coast and Savannah, Georgia, as well as being distributed in Phenix City.
When Guardsmen raided his establishment they found all kinds of equipment for loading dice or shaving them. The marked cards and other crooked devices were ordered from a wholesale house in Chicago and one in Los Angeles.
Web- ster maintained a list of customers, which included most of the Phenix City establishments and gambling casinos throughout Alabama and several surrounding states.
He was found to 76 Phenix Cm- operate a dice and card game on the post where he regularly fleeced his buddies. Webster readily admitted that he handled "expert" ecjuip- ment, but said he only recently had gone into the manufac- turing field.
Seized along with his customer lists were catalogues, show- ing illustrations and price Ibts. They can be set to pay off any percentage the operator wishes, and that figure is based upon what he thinks the players will stand for.
In Las Vegas, Nevada, for instance, machines are said to pay off from sixty to eighty percent of the amount taken in. In Phenis City most of the machines paid off ten percent, or less.
Before turning in their slot machines in 1, the Shepherd- Matthews Syndicate had machines in most of the better loca- tions in the city, as well as in scores of filling stations, grocery stores, cafes and night spots in Russell County.
Franklin was tJie foreman of the Russell County Grand Jury at the rime Albert Patterson was killed, and, under ordinary circum- stances, this gambler would have been one of the eighteen men to have considered any evidence that might have been brought before a Grand Jury at that time.
However, the entire body, along with the Jury Commission that put theit names in the jury box, was superseded by a special Grand Gambling Was No Gamble 77 Jury organized from a new jury box to hear all cases growing out of the cleanup.
After the Kefauver Senate Committee hearings in , certain teeth were put into the federal gambling laws.
Gam- blers were required to buy federal stamps each year, and to pay ten percent of their net proceeds to the government. Anotlier law made it a federal offense for slot machines to be carried across a state line, or for slot machine parts and other gambling devices to be handled in interstate commerce.
These restrictions were the most serious blow struck at organized gambling up to that time. Then the Alabama Legislature made the owning of a gambling stamp prima facie evidence of guiit.
Tlie Shepherd-Matthews combine exited from the active gambling field. Most of the Phenix City "sportsmen" rallied quickly and bought gambling stamps for business as usual.
They obviously were not worried about prosecutions in Russell County. Jones, as one of his official acts after being ap- pointed by the Alabama Supreme Court to preside over legal phases of the clean-up.
This put Franklin and his Grand Jury out of business. Franklin was discovered to have been owner of a federal gambling stamp at the same time he was Grand Jury foreman.
He was caught in the gambling dragnet, indicted and pleaded guilty. His sentence, in two cases, was originally fixed at two years, the heaviest term imposed on any gambler.
It was later reduced to one year, which he began serving in December, The price of a nickel slot machine— around in Chicago— suddenly jumped to 1 1, in Phenix City.
One of the men who became expert m machining pans for slot machines was Felron Cobb, nephew of the late Hoiner Cobb, strong mmi mayor of Phenix City.
Felton Cobb operated a radio shop in the rear of his modest home. Neighbors knew that he was always swamped with work even when business was slow for others.
Brown rook a crew of Guardsmen to investigate the shop. Inside the concrete block structure they found a modern slot machine factory with nearly a score of slot machines and large quantities of parts.
They also found a reel of eight millimeter movie film of the type shown at stag smokers. Cobb was indicted for possession of gambhng equipment and obscene film, aSthough the latter charge was dropped after he entered a plea of guilty to the gambling charges.
The return from slot machines added up to an enormous figure. Over-anxiety to learn about slot machine operations at The Rire and other places, nearly resulted in serious conse- quences for one of the authors of this book.
This episode is related as it happened, to the individual writer. It was abour two weeks after the Patterson murder and before the National Guard had been given real authority to pohce the city.
The writer had made contact through a third person to learn about gambling operations from an inside source. The meeting was arranged for about He also furnished details of slot machine loca- tions and the approximate take from each place.
The meeting was hastily adjourned, the lights cumed off, and hiding places selected in the nearby bushes. While both the writer and his companion were armed, neither relished the idea of a showdown in that lonely pine rhicket.
When the car had gone, the conference was hurriedly finished and the writer and his companion parted company for the trip back to Phenix City.
At that point a car, traveling at high speed, approached frotn the rear. The other car slowed inomentariiy, then whipped quickly back on the road and raced away toward Phenbi, After regaining control of his car, the author gave chase in an effort to get the license number of the other vehicle.
Tt was a Georgia tag, but bent upwards in such a manner as to be unreadable. After losing the car near the railroad station, a call was placed to Guard Headquarteis and jeep patrols were put on the search.
The vehicle, by then, had a rwo-mile start and very Ukely was across the river in Columbus before Guards- men reached the scene.
An examination of the point where the car liad left the road revealed that it was but thirty -ards from a steel bridge abutment.
Below was a rocky gorge ten feet deep. The scare technique employed bv the gamblers is out- 80 Phenix City lined here to emphasize the desperate measures the hard- pushed mobsters were prepared to take to protect their threatened vice empire.
The maneuver of running people off the road was to be repeated several times. Among those forced from the road was an agent for the Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board, and L, B, Sulhvan, direcror of the Alabama Depart- ment of Public Safety, Threats of death or bodily harm were made against several persons identified with the clean- up, including Governor Persons, Mrs.
Governor Persons said there had been four such death threats made against him or members of his family. For a while he toted a. He had the executive mansion guarded by four armed watchmen and the grounds swept with floodlights.
The governor confided to the authors that four times during a single week he had his private telephone line changed because it had been tapped by parties unknown.
Gallion learned of the threat against his wife when he received a telephone call from Mrs. Gallion had just left a hotel in Columbus, Georgia, two hours earlier, where she had been visiting her husband.
Gallion rold of answering her telephone that was ringing as she entered her Montgomery home, about eighty miles from Columbus. She was rold ro get her husband off the case.
These were hopeful signs to all those involved In the Gambling Was No Gamble 81 iipcration of cleaning up the gambling empire. How those dollars came, and who suffered to supply them, was of no concern to the ruthless mobsters who ruled the city with an iron fist for more than twenty years.
Narcotics, like a fire in the blood, consume the health, the self-respect, the morals and the finances of the victim. Finally the very life of the unfonunate penon so enslaved is burned away.
Surprisingly enough, there appeared to be little marijuana sold or consumed in Phenix City. Occasional shipments of heroin were known to have come into the city, once considered by nar- cotics agents among the hottest in the nation.
Most of the narcotics used in Phenix Qty were in the form of tablets of morphine or dialudid. The latter is a powerful narcotic, even more potent than morphine or heroin.
There is no type of investigation in the kingdom of crime that approaches in difficulty that of making a narcotics case stick.
Those who push the drug are cagy, suspicious and ever alen for the informer or the double cross. Few narcotics cases were made during the vice cleanup, though a considerable amount of narcotics was seized or purchased.
On the heels of the local drive against vice and crime, came three agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics. The story was a true account of how one popular high school girl from a prominent Phenix City family became addicted to dope and how it wrecked her owti life and those of her father nnd mother.
The story was of a beautiful, vivacious high school girl, popular and talented as a dancer. In some manner, during her liist year of high school in Phenix City, she started taking narcotics.
The girt was the only child of well-to-do parents. He finally induced her to talk. She said she bad been taking the drug for several months, hut would not give the name of her supplier.
The girl was sent away to a sanitarium for treatment, and spent several months there. After her return home she went back on the needle, and her father worked with narcotics agents to find how slie was obtaining the drugs.
The investi- gation was successful, and both the girl and her male suppher were convicted in the U. District Court at Opelika, Ala- bama, in!
She drew a sentence and was sent to a govern- ment hospital where addicts are treated. She escaped and her family found her in New York, living wirh a group of drug addicts.
The family spent thousands of dollars trying to help their only child. The parents later died— broke and broken-hearted. To- day the girl, now a mere shell of her former self, is still seeking to satisfy her craving for dope in the gutters of a West Coast city.
That story was selected merely as an example of the results of dope traffic in the neon jungles that hid the drab dives of the city, Phenix City in the early forties had been top on the priority list of the narcotics agents who worked tire- lessly to remove the threat from the vicinity of important military bases.
They had succeeded to some degree, and at the rime of the cleanup, the narcotics traffic was not of the great proportions in Phenix that it once had been.
That was perhaps the only type of vice or crime that was on the wane before the Patterson murder built a fire under the rackets in the river town.
No one could deny, however, that dope was stilt a big problem and that addicts were able to obtain their supply. General Hanna ordered the formation of a special narcotics squad of Guardsmen and that squad began n campaign to cut off the supply.
The dope sleuths first made out a list of known addicts. Some of these they picked up fot questioning, in an effort to discover the sources of supply.
Working through an undercover agent, a former B-girl, the squad was able to obtain barbiturates almost at will, even in the midst of the clean-up drive.
The girl also was able to obtain other narcotics, but from medical sources where it was most difficult to make a case that would stand up.
The investigators discovered that most of the narcotics were being obtained through two certain doctors, while barbiturates could be purchased like aspirin.
The addicts themselves, fearful of cutting off their supply source, refused to talk. One such addict was Gambler George T. Davis had been on the needle for years and freely Admitted that he required three grains of morphine daily.
Davis was among the first of the "old guard" of gambling to be jailed, and was held for several weeks because of the amount of the bond set against him in fifty -four gambling and lottery cases.
Once when Davis was not given the needle for several hours, he became violently ill and was rushed to Cobb Me- morial Hospital, where doctors quickly administered mor- phine.
Investigators learned that Davis received his morphine in lots of four hundred tablets at a time from an out-of-state source.
He, like several others in Phenix City, could get nar- cotics on prescription if need be, because they had been addicted so long that doctors considered the drug necessary to keep them alive.
A woman who operated one of the more notorious joints off the beaten path in Phenix, was "hooked" on diahidid and investigators said she consumed up to five grains daily to satisfy the habit.
While the older addicts were tragic figures, the younger uembers of the "jolting" fraternity were even more pathetic. Daring the past few years a number of the younger set had died direcdy from the effects of an overdose of narcotics, or as an indirect result of using drugs.
Some had died at their own hands, unable to face life, enrolled in the vicious drug habit. The older residents of the city could recall those names.
A few of them did succeed, 86 Phenix City but many returned to Phenix to take up within a few weeks or months where they Iiad left off.
He admitted chat he had bought dope from a man at the Oyster Bar, downstairs under the Riverside Cafe. He said he had bought and used dope in Phenbc City.
He also told investigators that he had purchased not only heroin but draft classification and registration cards, and a Social Security card, from a man known to him only as "Eddie," who worked for a Columbus caxicab company.
During the days in Phenix when a "jolt" could be ob- tained almost as easily as purchasing a package of cigarettes, the rich market was supplied in part by a man who had es- caped the current cleanup because he had made his fortune and got out of the rackets and into a legitimate business.
While he was serving as the major channel for the drug traffic, he had his supplies flown in from Mobile and Savannah, His record and his former activities are well known to many residents of Phenix City, and he stands today as the apparent exception to the rule that crime does not pay.
After several weeks of invratigation, members of the narcotics squad of the Guard stated publicly that they were faced with a nearly impossible situation.
Certain doctors, they said, were giving prescriptions for narcotics and bar- biturates to addicts, and the investigators were helpless to stop the semi-legal traffic.
They called upon the doctors and druggists to cooperate in drying up the source of possible new addiction.
Prather, was questioned by Guardsmen when a former female associate of his was found shot to death. He explained that he kept them handy to give to [laricnts who needed them.
While no local case has been made against any physician in Phenix City, the federal government did assess an income tux lien of 1 , against Dr.
The source of the Income, which the government claims the doctor did not icport, has not been disclosed and the case has not come to irinl at this writing.
National Guardsmen traced a supply of narcodcs to the home of a farmer outside Phenix City. Tile drug was seized and the man arrested. The supplier, however, had slipped through their fingers.
One of them fell onto the floor. National Guard Major E. Ray Acton casually picked it up and began to read. As a matter of fact, just heard it myself a few minutes ago, Fanny Bell has had one of her front teeth pulled.
Fanny Bell was a woman among women and a woman among men. She knew what she wanted and she knew how to get it.
She played her part to the hilt and kept the fires of love burning brighriy in a half dozen masculine breasts siniul- taneously. One or two she loved for the simple jov of loving.
The voluptuous brunette, who knew how to get her point Hcross, came to Phenix City in late She said she was twenty-nine, but she was being generous with herself.
At least thirty five winters had come and gone since Fanny first breathed the air of this earth. The girlish figure was with her yet and the slight signs that everyone, even Fanny, will grow old if they live long enough, affected her operations not at all.
Financial and social success for a B-girl or prostitute in Mlienix City was unusual. Her income was split too many ways and her charms wore out too soon.
By the time a luistler learned all the ropes, the ropes were pretty thin. Not so, Fanny Bell. She went to work as a fourteen dollar ;i week B-girl.
She played her cards close to her full bosom. I ler husband, at that time, being a card sharp, had taught her this trick.
They corresponded regularly, met often, and loved frequently. By Fanny could well afford to do so. She had listened and learned as a B-girl on Fourteenth Street.
Her marriage to the sergeant was a step in the direction she had deter- mined to follow. Her boy friend, at the time of the ceremony, was stationed at Fort Benning, After hving with him less than a week, Fanny talked her husband into applying for an assign- ment in Gemiany.
She toid him she always had wanted to visit in Europe. What he should do, Fanny instructed, was to get to Germany and make arrangements for her to join him and she would pick up and skedaddle across the ocean to him.
Off he went, good trooper that he was. Tliere he re- mained. Fanny Bell stayed behind.
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